The Cessna Citation X is a long-range medium business jet aircraft. The X is the fastest operative civilian jet, with a top speed of Mach 0.92 (527 ktas, 607 mph, 977 km/h at 41,000ft ASL (12,700meters ASL). This also makes it the fastest business jet in history. The Citation X is powered by two Rolls-Royce turbofan engines and is built by the Cessna Aircraft Company in Wichita, Kansas. The Citation brand of business jets encompasses six distinct "families" of aircraft. Although based on the earlier Citation III, VI and VII models, the Citation X is a significantly different airplane; it utilizes a totally new wing design, engines, and features a glass cockpit.
The Citation X is powered by two Rolls-Royce AE 3007C1 engines, each with a thrust of 6700 lbf (30 kN), pod-mounted on the sides of the rear fuselage. It is the first Cessna aircraft to be powered by a Rolls-Royce engine. The engine has solid titanium blades and a three-stage low-pressure turbine. The engine's fan has a 5 to 1 bypass ratio for improved fuel efficiency and low acoustic signature.
The development of the Citation X was first announced at the National Business Aviation Association Convention in New Orleans in October 1990. Originally scheduled for August 1995, the certification of the Cessna Citation X was delayed several times. First, failure of the airframe and engine to meet Federal Aviation Administration requirements caused the planned certification date postponement to late November 1995. The main delay reasons were troubles integrating the avionics and the engine to the aircraft, high-altitude and low-speed engine flame out (high wing attack angles caused insufficient airflow), engines not meeting the bird strike criteria, and directional stability challenges. Efforts to increase the maximum take-off weight of the Citation X by about 800 pounds again delayed the FAA certification schedule, this time to April 1996. These changes were aimed at permitting a full-fuel payload of 1,400 pounds (seven passengers), but Cessna had difficulty achieving a balance between reducing Citation X cabin noise and minimizing the extra weight of sound-dampening materials. The certification, FAA FAR Part 25, Amendment 74, Certification 3, was finally achieved on June 3, 1996.
The first Citation X was delivered in June 1996 to golfer and long-time Cessna customer Arnold Palmer. Once in use, the Citation X continued to set speed records. Arnold Palmer set one of them in September 1997: 473 knots (876 km/h) on a 5,000 km closed course. In February 1997, the Citation X design team was awarded the National Aeronautic Association's Robert J. Collier Trophy. The Citation X was approved by Transport Canada on May 22, 1998, and by the European Joint Aviation Authorities in 1999. In October 2000, Cessna announced an upgrade for all Citation Xs to be delivered after January 1, 2002. The main characteristics of this upgraded version are a 5% increase in thrust, a 400 lb (180 kg) increase in maximum take-off weight and improved Honeywell avionics.
When the Citation X was announced, the Citation 650 series, the "family" at the top of the product line, which includes the Citations III, VI, and VII, was eight years old. In 1990, Cessna made a proposition for an improved 650 model to their Customer Advisory Council. The council was interested in some new elements such as increased speed and a pressurized baggage compartment. This pushed Cessna toward the Citation X program, which became the new 750 series.
Moreover, Cessna wanted to improve the image of the Citation family. The Citation models that emerged in the 1970s were originally intended to be practical and with good handling qualities. Consequently, they turned out to be much slower than the competing Learjets. Cessna had difficulties in shedding of the popular image of the Citation as a slow airplane, even though their jets had eventually become as fast as the competition.
Cruise speed: 950 km/h
Total range: 5 778 km
Engines: 2 x Rolls-Royce AE3007C1
Wingspan: 19.4 m
Length: 22.0 m
Height: 5.8 m
Length: 7.16 m
Width: 1.7 m
Height: 1.73 m
Passengers: up to 8
Baggage capacity: 2.32 cubic m