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Bombardier CSeries - The new generation of air
Wednesday 19, April 2017

Bombardier CSeries - a rebel, stood at the sources of a new class of passenger jets. Due to the size, range and operating costs, it does not fit into the traditional classification: it can not be attributed to regional aircraft, but medium-range can only be called with reservations.
CSeries is very different not only from the successful family of regional Bombardier CRJ aircraft, but also from the BRJ-X project (100 km / h) with a flight range of 2780-4400 km (Bombardier Regional Jet eXpansion). Work on the BRJ-X was stopped in 2000, when Bombardier faced severe competition from the Embraer E-Jet family, as well as Boeing 717 and Airbus A318 aircraft. Then the Canadian manufacturer chose to retreat and gather strength.
After a four-year pause in Bombardier decided that it was time for decisive action. The company from a clean sheet created a new aircraft CSeries, capable of carrying 110-150 pass. At a distance of up to 6100 km at a speed of 0.78M. Its commissioning was planned for 2010, but due to numerous problems, CS100 shipments started only in mid-2016, and CS300 - in December 2016.
Today, the competitive environment differs from that in 2010: in 2018, regional aircraft of the Embraer E-Jet E2 family with improved efficiency will appear on the market. According to Embraer, the E190-E2 will fly to a distance of 5200 km and take on board up to 97 passes. The range of CS100 liners with a capacity of 108-127 is 5700 km; In the future, their passenger capacity can increase to 135 seats, they say in Bombardier.
The CS300 version in its turn directly competes with the mainline airliners Airbus and Boeing, which in response to the appearance of the CSeries carried out the remotorization of the A320 and Boeing 737 families. The A320neo operation began in 2016, the Boeing 737MAX will appear on the market in 2017. Bombardier leadership has come to naught ; Will her new aircraft be competitive? Significant orders, received in 2016 from Air Canada and Delta Air Lines, let you say yes, it will.
Compared to the CS100, the CS300 fuselage is extended by 3.7 m. Both components are unified by 97% in terms of the composition of the components. Due to the increased dimensions, the CS300 accommodates 145 passes. Upon completion of the additional certification procedure, its capacity can be increased to 160 seats. The CS300 flight range at 6,100 km is 6,100 km, which allows it to connect pairs of cities such as Portland (Oregon) - Charlotte (North Carolina), Shannon (Ireland) - Toronto (Canada) and Anchorage (pcs. Alaska) - Cabo San Lucas (Mexico). The CSeries interior is narrower than the narrow-bodied Airbus and Boeing aircraft. However, the configuration with five rows allows you to place in CSeries wider seats than many competitors. Most economy class seats on the CS300 have a width of 18.5 inches (47 cm); The width of the middle row seats is 19 inches (48.3 cm), which makes them more tolerable. The width of the passage is 20 inches (51 cm). The size of the portholes - 28.0 x 40.6 cm, the largest in the segment of narrow-body aircraft. The luggage shelves also have impressive dimensions: the row to the right is capable of accommodating large 25-inch (63.5 cm) bags on wheels, the left-hand row is standard 22-inch (55.9 cm) bags. The noise level in the cabin, judging by my observations, is one of the lowest.
The operational mass of the CSeries aircraft is reduced by at least 1100 kg compared to gliders made from traditional aluminum alloys. This is achieved through the use of modern materials: the fuselage is made of aluminum-lithium alloy of the third generation, the wing - made of carbon fiber, obtained by injection molding. This makes the CS300 much easier compared to the younger models in the A320neo and Boeing 737MAX families.
CSeries airplanes are equipped with four variants of Pratt & Whitney PW1500G reducer turbofan engine with take-off thrust 8,6-10,6 t (maintained to ISA + 15 ° C). Thanks to a reducer with a ratio of 3: 1, mounted between the cascade of a low-pressure turbine and a 185-centimeter fan with hollow aluminum blades, the rotation speed of the latter can be kept below 3500 rpm. The degree of the two-circuit engine is 12: 1. The power plant is equipped with a two-channel digital control system (FADEC).
This is the first Bombardier aircraft with an electronic remote control system (EDSU). The CSeries has a three-axis flight control system with three three-channel basic on-board computers (two of which are redundant), which monitor the electrohydraulic drives of elevator and direction rudders, ailerons and spoilers, and the stabilizer shift drive.
The control actions are transmitted through the left and right side control knobs, each of which is equipped with a switch for stabilizer shift, a control grip button, and aileron trim and trim switch switches. The cockpit is equipped with large windows. The nose cone of the aircraft sharply goes down. Thanks to this, the cab opens an excellent view. We set the climb mode at 280 knots / 0.78M (519 km / h) to FL380 (11.6 km), where we had to test the aircraft in cruising flight mode. Entering the train, the car stabilized at a speed of 0.78M in ISA-2C conditions. The door to the cockpit was open, and I noticed that the noise level in the passenger compartment was exceptionally low.
At a mass of 43860 kg, the true airspeed in cruising mode was 445 knots (824 km / h), fuel consumption was 1570 kg / h. Thus, the specific flight range was 0.129 miles / lb (0.525 km / kg), which corresponds to the declared fuel efficiency indicators. However, this is just one-stage fixation of cruising characteristics, rather than the average values ??obtained in a calm atmosphere far from the earth's surface. Nevertheless, the aircraft is much more economical than most competitors.
Turning back to Wichita, I released the spoilers as much as possible to speed the descent from the Class A airspace (below 5.5 km - ATO Note). At the maximum extension, when the speed of the descent exceeded 1830 m / min, a slight kicking moment appeared, accompanied only by a weak shaking.
In the conditions of VFR (visual flight rules), at an altitude of 4800 m, I slowed down the aircraft, released the landing gear, pushed the flaps to the Flaps 4 position and sharply entered the aircraft into a roll at an angle of 45 °. The car reacted quickly, but gently - the work of the EDSU affected.
With the released chassis and extended flaps, we began to reduce at an angle of 3 ° with the landing speed VREF 121 node (224 km / h), thus simulating a landing approach. At an altitude of 4570 m, I made a run-off to the second lap, setting the maximum thrust by moving the flaps to Flaps 2 and removing the chassis with a positive climb. Despite the increase in thrust, the angle of attack was practically unchanged, as the EMU neutralized the moment of kapirovaniya.
During the second test call at the altitude, we had to experience a missed approach to the second lap with one idle engine, so Litavniks moved the right-hand drive control lever to idle. Following the instructions on the main flight display that showed the yaw and pitch angles, I set the full thrust on the left engine, pressed the left pedal to deflect the rudder by 9-12 degrees and increased the angle of attack to maintain the target VAC speed at 127 knots 235 km / h). Then I removed the flaps to the Flaps 2 position in order to reduce the resistance, removed the chassis with a positive climb and accelerated to the VGA (speed of the missed approach) at 137 knots (254 km / h). There was a small moment of heel. The control was obedient, and we continued the acceleration to 177 knots (328 km / h) - the final takeoff speed at which the slats and flaps were removed.
Then we made a series of calls to test the aircraft for stalling in various configurations: during a flight in a straight line, in turns and with increasing overload. These maneuvers not only demonstrated the ability of the EMF to protect the aircraft from going beyond the normal flight mode, but also enabled us to get acquainted with the improved situational awareness provided by the semi-active lateral control knobs. With their help, a vibration is transmitted to the handle, which warns of stalling, and increasing resistance with soft and hard stops.
I will give an example. During the stall test in direct flight mode with the chassis and flaps released in the Flaps 4 position, I began to slow down from 121 nodes (224 km / h) - approach speed - to 1 node per second. To maintain the height, gently pulled the side handle to control. At a speed of 101 knots (187 km / h), the handle reached a soft stop (with a force of 8 kg) and vibrated. Simultaneously, the digital airspeed indicator became yellow, and the sound warning system issued a "speed" warning.
Instead of letting go of the control knob, I pulled it further, with an effort to overcome the resistance of the soft stop. Having passed this point, to further slow down I had to make an effort already at 13 kg or even more. We heard the signal "speed, speed, speed", and the digital speed indicator turned red. When the speed dropped to 94 knots (174 km / h), and the angle of attack was 15.4 °, the control knob reached a hard stop, to overcome which it was required to apply an effort of 17 kg. All the time that I was pulling the handle with all my strength, the EDSU did not let the plane to roll, did not allow yawing and slightly lowered the nose, keeping the angle of attack a step from the critical value.
I have not yet flown on jet aircraft with such complaisant and at the same time responsive control. Bombardier uses EDSU not to protect the pilots from the aircraft, but to mitigate its adverse aerodynamic, traction and configuration habits. Semi-active side controls are a step forward in the field of situational awareness. The law of control, monitoring the stability of speed, helps the crew to navigate the situation, providing a natural sensation.
The pilot's cabin is made with the utmost ergonomics for its class: the situation in it is quiet, the light is muffled, whereas colors, symbols and graphics are used only in cases where it is necessary to increase situational awareness of the crew. I would like to re-fly on this plane when an additional collimator indicator on the windshield (HUD) and an electronic logbook (EFD) are certified for it.
Direct costs of operation of this type should impress with its low level. The use of PW1500G engines, which burn by 18-20% less fuel than the current generation of the same class of power, and maintenance of A- and C-check forms every 850 and 8500 hr respectively, will be cheaper, and also the application of one of the most advanced in its Class of aircraft condition monitoring systems.

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